Mammalian E3 is an essential mitochondrial enzyme responsible for catalyzing the terminal reaction in the oxidative catabolism of several metabolites. E3 is a key regulator of metabolic fuel selection as a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc). E3 regulates PDHc activity by altering the affinity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, an inhibitor of the enzyme complex, through changes in reduction and acetylation state of lipoamide moieties set by the NAD(+)/NADH ratio. Thus, an accurate kinetic model of E3 is needed to predict overall mammalian PDHc activity.
Equations for blood oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) and carbaminohemoglobin (HbCO2) dissociation curves that incorporate nonlinear biochemical interactions of oxygen and carbon dioxide with hemoglobin (Hb), covering a wide range of physiological conditions, are crucial for a number of practical applications. These include the development of physiologically-based computational models of alveolar-blood and blood-tissue O2-CO2 transport, exchange, and metabolism, and the analysis of clinical and in vitro data.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is a well-known seleno-enzyme that protects cells from oxidative stress (e.g., lipid peroxidation and oxidation of other cellular proteins and macromolecules), by catalyzing the reduction of harmful peroxides (e.g., hydrogen peroxide: H2O2) with reduced glutathione (GSH). However, the catalytic mechanism of GPx kinetics is not well characterized in terms of a mathematical model.