Cubic-Hermite hexahedral elements

Biomechanics simulations using cubic Hermite meshes with extraordinary nodes for isogeometric cardiac modeling

Cubic Hermite hexahedral finite element meshes have some well-known advantages over linear tetrahedral finite element meshes in biomechanical and anatomic modeling using isogeometric analysis. These include faster convergence rates as well as the ability to easily model rule-based anatomic features such as cardiac fiber directions. However, it is not possible to create closed complex objects with only regular nodes; these objects require the presence of extraordinary nodes (nodes with 3 or >=5 adjacent elements in 2D) in the mesh.

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