The integrated cardiovascular model combines a simple model of the cardiovascular system (Smith, 2004) and a model describing baroreflex control of the heart (Bugenhagen, 2010).
The integrated cardiovascular model combines a simple model of the cardiovascular system (Smith, 2004) and a model describing baroreflex control of the heart (Bugenhagen, 2010). The resulting closed loop model simulates pressures flows and volumes in the rat cardiovascular system as well as the dynamics of the baroreflex system. Both the Smith and Bugenhagen models are available for download in the links below. A Matlab version of the integrated model is included for comparison.
mmHg increase in thoracic pressure (period labeled ‘Valsalva’, and during recovery. The lower panel shows predicted heart rate during the simulation.
An additional heart rate parameter was added to the integrated model to convert HR to seconds per beat as required for the driver function in Smith et al.
In Smith et al. the heart driver is an equation with constant output. The inclusion of the Baroreflex necessitates modifying the driver to be a function of heart rate.
The ventricular elastance parameters in Smith et al. were recast as functions of heart rate.
A description of the integration workflow can be found here.
Beard DA, Neal ML, Tabesh-Saleki N, Thompson CT, Bassingthwaighte JB, Shimoyama M, Carlson BE. Multiscale modeling and data integration in the Virtual Physiological Rat Project. Ann Biomed Eng 40(11): 2365-78., 2012
1: Bugenhagen, S.M., A.W. Cowley, Jr., and D.A. Beard, Identifying physiological origins of baroreflex dysfunction in salt-sensitive hypertension in the Dahl SS rat. Physiol Genomics. 42(1): p. 23-41.
2: Smith, B.W., et al., Minimal haemodynamic system model including ventricular interaction and valve dynamics. Medical Engineering & Physics, 2004. 26(2): p. 131-139.